Diabetes mellitus is a serious chronic disease that occurs as a result of an increase in blood sugar levels. Many people have lived with diabetes for many years and ignore the obvious signs of the disease. A lack of insulin in the body or its ineffective effects can affect the rise in sugar. It is important to note that diabetes is a disease that has its own variants. Basically, people with diabetes are divided into two types: insulin dependent (first type of diabetes) and insulin independent (second type). This disease is incurable, and if a patient is diagnosed with this disease, it will be with him for life.
Often people with this disease are interested in the topic of nutrition and food products that can be used in food to normalize and balance the metabolism in the body. The preference for products should be attributed to vegetables, fruits, meat and dairy products. Nowadays, doctors believe that proper nutrition is the best prevention against diabetes. If you have already been diagnosed with diabetes, it is important to find the right treatment (limit your use of additional medications) and follow proper diet. The most important thing is not to self-medicate when diagnosing such a disease, but to turn to an endocrinologist who will be able to tell you everything about diabetes, prescribe the necessary treatment, and also tell you how to behave properly and, in fact, with diabetesLife. Many do not even think about how dangerous this disease is and how many people in the world are dying from late diagnosis or from complications caused by diabetes. In this article we are going to cover the basic dietary rules for each type of diabetes, and also consider a list of foods that are better to refuse and, on the contrary, are preferred.
Diabetes mellitus type 1 diet
The first type of diabetes is more dangerous and serious. When diagnosing this type, a person is assigned insulin injections that must be carried out throughout their life. Many do not adhere to a diet for diabetes, and due to this, the disease can rapidly progress, cause complications and provoke various diseases.
The main treatment for patients with the first type of diabetes is choosing the right insulin and the doses required. It is very important that the doctor correctly selects the pharmaceutical preparation and its dosage and also helps in formulating the required diet, as it can also be individualized. Proper treatment is essential for a diabetic. If treatment is not started on time, the consequences can be serious. Of course, insulin itself normalizes blood sugar levels, but with the right diet, the number of injections per day can decrease. And do not forget that only your attending doctor should prescribe treatment and diet, since the first type of diabetes is quite dangerous and it is better not to "play" with it.
There is a special system for calculating the required insulin dose and for calculating the food consumed. This system is called the "bread unit". According to this system, one bread unit corresponds to 10-15 grams of carbohydrates. In simple terms, a bread unit is, for example, an orange or a slice of bread. As a rule, doctors issue a table in which the patient can mark and control the filling level of the bread units.
By the way, it is worth noting that all doctors recommend keeping a diabetic diary in which all foods consumed per day and their quantities must be recorded. This will help the doctor control your disease and identify certain nuances. With the first type of diabetes, the main thing is to adhere to certain rules that in no way distinguish you from a healthy person. The main thing is that a premium meal does not exceed 7 bread units. It is very important that you calculate your insulin dose and bread units before each meal. And the main thing to avoid are sweet drinks (lemonade, energy drinks, sweet tea, carbonated and only sweet juices), because they contain an excessively large amount of sugar, and this can significantly affect the patient's well-being and dramatically increase sugar levels.
Type 2 diabetes diet
Most of the time, a person can develop type 2 diabetes due to obesity or mundane overeating. In this disease, the main task is to normalize metabolism and carbohydrates. Do not forget that diabetes mellitus occurs not only from the use of large amounts of sugar, but that mundane overeating can also provoke the development of the disease. The body doesn't make enough insulin or the cells simply lose their sensitivity to it. As a rule, doctors recommend correct treatment (with pills), diet and an active lifestyle (daily physical activity is what you need).
The necessary diet for patients with the second type of diabetes, and such patients are usually overweight and overweight, can be properly selected and prescribed by an endocrinologist, since this disease is endocrine in nature. When prescribing a diet, the doctor should interview the patient and clarify his gender, body weight, age category, as well as the presence of physical activity.
The second type of diet is based on weight loss and normalization of metabolism. Often times, the doctor can calculate the correct amount of calories per day. As a rule, the number of calories is calculated from the proportions per 1 kilogram of body - 20 calories for women, and for men - 25. If you want, you can independently calculate the required number of calories during the day. If a person has been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, it is very important to remember that the diet must be followed continuously. For this reason, it is very important to put together a diet so that it is tasty, healthy and varied. But do not forget that high-calorie meals and foods that raise blood sugar levels should be completely eliminated.
When planning a diet for diabetes, it is very important to remember that you need to use more foods that contain vegetable fiber and water. Such products will help satisfy the appetite, and at the same time they will not be deposited on the body by extra pounds. The main thing is to lose weight, but this must be done carefully enough so as not to gain even more kilograms later.
Calories and their allowable amount during the day
People with diabetes can often lose their diet because of the strong and strong fasting and food restriction. It is important to remember that the main thing in a diet is not to count the number of calories consumed, but simply to eat the right foods. In no case should you count calories and try to limit them, since, on the contrary, it can only aggravate the disease and worsen the patient's well-being. Scientists argue that it is diet that mainly affects the development of diabetes mellitus and the occurrence of comorbidities.
There is a so-called low-carbohydrate diet that naturally forces you to give up some foods, including those that you used to love and constantly ate. At the same time, you can choose the right foods, and the diet will be very tasty and satisfying. By simply eating the right diet, you can control your blood sugar levels and the food can be just as tasty but also healthy. Incidentally, in 2012, scientists from Dubai conducted a study on the effect of a low-carbohydrate diet on the condition and well-being of patients, since it found that patients following this diet were less likely to break down and have perfect control of blood sugar levels. The treatment was less painful and practically with no particular restrictions on the amount of food.
Fruit that can be eaten with diabetes
In the case of diabetes mellitus, special attention is paid to fruits, as these fruits contain a lot of fiber and also concentrate many useful vitamins, trace elements and minerals. Compared to other products, their concentration is many times higher. It should be noted that they contain mainly fructose and sucrose, but glucose is practically non-existent.
If we completely compare all possible fruits, only some of them can be distinguished, since only certain fruits represent value for the body. It is also worth noting that not all fruits are recommended for consumption, some fruits, on the contrary, are contraindicated for diabetics.
Fruits recommended for diabetics include: grapefruits, lemons, oranges, apples, apricots, peaches, pears, pomegranates, a variety of dried fruits (it is recommended to use dried apricots, plums, dried apples), among the berries to pay attention to - cherries, blueberries, gooseberries, currants, blackberries. But, for example, watermelons and melons should be consumed in moderation, as they contain more carbohydrate components. As you already understood, it is necessary to consume acidic varieties of fruits and berries. These are more useful and do not raise blood sugar levels much and much.
Many diabetics ask exactly what food they are allowed to eat, as diet is one of the most important factors for them. We will provide you with a list of the foods that are recommended to be used. However, I would like to point out that this is just a rough list. A more precise diet in diabetes mellitus should only be determined by your attending doctor, since he will know all your pathologies and the history of the disease. So what foods can you eat:
- Vegetable or mushroom soup, okroshka, broths made from low-fat fish;
- lean meat: chicken, rabbit, veal, beef;
- it is better to take bread made from the second type of flour, either rye or wheat, bread with bran;
- low-fat fish, but you can only use it. Cooked or baked, fried fish should be removed from the diet. Canned foods can be consumed, but it is important to note that they must be in their own juice. Other types of canned food are prohibited.
- of cereals you should prefer wheat, barley, buckwheat, oats and pearl barley porridge;
- Eggs can also be consumed, but no more than 2 eggs per week, and only protein is better, but it is better to limit the amount of yolks.
- low-fat dairy products: cottage cheese, milk, yoghurt and low-fat hard cheeses;
- from fruits and berries, preference should be given to non-sweet varieties (apples, kiwi, grapefruit);
- Compotes, jellies and even sweets can be consumed, but it is very important that they are based on sorbitol or saccharin.
- Cucumber, squash, tomato, squash, lettuce, cabbage and eggplant are the vegetables that should be preferred. It is very good to use this vegetable raw (for example in a salad);
- Potatoes can be eaten in moderation and it is very important to soak them in water before cooking as they release starch when soaked, which is harmful in diabetes and can increase sugar levels.
- Herbal teas, sour berry juice, Uzvar.
As you can see, the list of allowed foods is quite large, and the main thing is to simply adapt to proper diet and consume more vegetables and fruits. A diabetic diet can be delicious. The main thing is to understand that your health and well-being depend on it.
Products that are prohibited
There are certain foods that are contraindicated and forbidden for diabetics as they can significantly increase blood sugar. After all, it is diet that affects sugar levels. What kind of food is contraindicated and which products are better to refuse:
- fatty meat broth;
- whole grain bread;
- Fatty meat, it is better to avoid pork, lamb, duck and goose meat. It is also necessary to exclude smoked meat, sausage and lard from your diet.
- Flour products - cakes, rolls and various types of biscuits. Butter and puff pastries and products made from them are strictly prohibited.
- it is worth doing without coffee and coffee beverages;
- oily fish, salted or smoked fish, canned food (if cooked in oil or tomato);
- fried, spicy and fatty foods are completely contraindicated, as they can only increase sugar and provoke the development of another disease.
- salted cheese, curd masses and only sweet and fatty cottage cheese, butter and cream;
- dairy products with a high fat content;
- legumes (peas, beans), varieties of salted and pickled vegetables;
- made from fruits is prohibited: all kinds of grapes, bananas, dates, strawberries, figs;
- jam, sugar, chocolate and various candy products;
- energy and carbonated drinks;
- juices that contain a lot of glucose (grape, multifruit), as well as sugar-based lemonade;
- made from cereals, you should forget about white rice, semolina, as well as all kinds of pasta.
Proper nutrition is very important for people with diabetes. Dieting for diabetes is simply necessary and restricting certain foods can make the patient's life much easier. So keep in mind that following a certain diet will make treatment much easier.
It is very important to remember that when diagnosing diabetes, proper treatment and nutrition are the main things. For some reason, many forget about diet, assuming that the pills or insulin prescribed by the doctor will normalize sugar, and this is not completely wrong, since frequent drops of sugar can provoke the development of other more serious diseases. Often times, this disease negatively affects eyesight, heart, and joints. Many live happily ever after with diabetes, but in some ways you need to limit yourself.
Proper treatment, diet and an active lifestyle are the keys to a long and happy life for a diabetic. Regardless of the type of diabetes diagnosed, treatment is always required, and therefore the diet must be corrected immediately. Yes, diabetes mellitus is one of the incurable diseases (although scientists have been trying for many years to find a cure for a complete cure) that can cause other diseases. However, if you learn to live with it properly, you will live long and happy lives. Remember, quality treatment and nutrition for diabetes are the most important things.